Tuesday, September 1, 2015


PYP5 Exhibition
Academic Year 2017/2018

IP Concert
Academic Year 2017/2018

PYP3 Percussion Ensemble

PYP4 Percussion Ensemble

PYP5 Percussion Ensemble

MYP3 Guitar

Monday, August 31, 2015

Classical Music Corner

Baroque compositions

Handel: Messiah - Behold, a virgin shall conceive/O Thou that tellest good tidings to Zion

Handel: Messiah - Behold, a virgin shall conceive/O Thou that tallest good tidings to Zion.pdf (here is the music sheet of the whole piece)

Henry Purcell: Ah, Belinda from Dido and Aeneas

George Frideric Handel: Xerxes - Ombra Mai Fu

Johann Sebastian Bach: Suite for orchestra No. 3 in D major, Air on the G string (original instruments)

Johann Sebastian Bach: Brandenburg concerto No. 1 in F major

Johann Sebastian Bach: Brandenburg concerto No. 2 in F major

Johann Sebastian Bach: Brandenburg concerto No. 3 in G major

Johann Sebastian Bach: Brandenburg concerto No. 4 in G major

Johann Sebastian Bach: Brandenburg concerto No. 5 in D major

Tomaso Albinoni: Adagio in G minor (orchestra)

Vivaldi: Autumn from The Four Seasons

Vivaldi: Autumn from The Four Seasons.pdf (here is the music score of the whole composition)

Vivaldi: Spring (full) from The Four Seasons

Vivaldi: Spring from The Four Seasons.pdf (music sheet)

Vivaldi: Summer (full) from The Four Seasons

Vivaldi: Oboe Sonata - Andante RV 53

Classical compositions

Joseph Haydn: Minuet and Trio from String Quartet in B flat, Op. 50, No. 1

Joseph Haydn: Symphony No. 45 "Farewell", I. Allegro Assai

Joseph Haydn: String Quartet Op. 64 No. 5 in D major "The Lark"

Ludwig Van Beethoven: Moonlight Sonata (Full)

Ludwig Van Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 (Full)

Ludwig Van Beethoven: Symphony No. 9 - 4th movement, Allegro assai (Choral finale on Schiller's 'Ode to Joy'

Ludwig Van Beethoven: Sonata 'Tempest' performed by Valentina Lisitsa

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Rondo from Horn Concerto No. 4

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Allegro from Piano Sonata in C major

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Clarinet Concerto in A major, Adagio

Wolgang Amadeus Mozart: Flute Concerto in D major I. Movement

Wolfgnag Amadeus Mozart: The Magic Flute - Queen of the night

Wolgang Amadeus Mozart: Eine Kleine Nachtmusik in G (Serenade No. 13 in G)

Romantic compositions

Carl Maria von Weber: Der Freischütz, Act III: Jagerchor

Eduardo di Capua: 'O sole mio' performed by The 3 Tenors (Luciano Pavarotti, Placido Domingo and Jose Carreras)

Felix Mendelssohn: Wedding March

Frederic Chopin: Etude in E major, Op. 10, No. 3

Frederic Chopin: Nocturne No. 20 in C#minor, Op. Posth

Frederic Chopin: Nocturne No. 2 in Eb major, Op. 9

Frederic Chopin: Waltz in D flat major, Op. 64 No. 1

Frederic Chopin: Fantasie Impromptu in C sharp minor, Op. 66

Franz Schubert - Serenade

Franz Schubert: Ave Maria performed by Andrea Bocelli

Georges Bizet: Habanera from Carmen performed by Heny Janawati

Gioachino Rossini: The Barber of Seville - Figaro's aria

Giacomo Puccini: Nessun Dorma performed by Andrea Bocelli

Hector Berlioz: Symphonie Fantastique (complete performance) by Chicago Symphony Orchestra

Jacques Offenbach: Doll Song from Les Contes d'Hoffmann

Johann Strauss: Roses from the South

Johann Strauss II: The Beautiful Blue Danube

Johannes Brahms: Hungarian Dance No. 1

Leo Delibes: Flower Dueat from Lakme

Liszt Ferenc: Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2

Liszt Ferenc: Dante Symphony

Ludwig Van Beethoven: Funeral March from Symphony No. 3, Eroica

Modest Mussorgsky: Pictures At An Exhibition - Promenade1, Gnomes

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky: The Nutcracker - Trepak Russian Dance

Pietro Mascagni: Cavalleria rusticana - Intermezzo

Richard Wagner: Ride of the Valkyries

Robert Schumann: Traumerei (Dreaming)

Modern compositions

Claude Debussy: Prelude a "L'apres-midi d'un faune"

Claude Debussy: Clair de lune (piano version)

Claude Debussy: Clair de lune (orchestra version)

Dmitri Shostakovich: Walts No. 2

George Gershwin: I got rhythm

George Gershwin: Summertime performed by Ella Fitzgerald

George Gershwin: Oh, Lady Be Good (instrumental)

George Gershwin: Oh, Lady Be Good (vocal)

George Gershwin: Rhapsody in Blue on the piano by Emily Bear

Igor Stravinsky: Rite of Spring (1 of 3)

John Cage: 4'33'' (Orchestra and soloist)

Kodaly Zoltan: Hary Janos Suite - Intermezzo

Maurice Ravel: Bolero

Maurice Ravel: Pavane pour une infante defunte for cello

Rodrigo: Concierto de Aranjuez I. movement

Rodrigo: Concierto de Aranjuez II. movement

Rodrigo: Concierto de Aranjuez III. movement

Rodrigo: Concierto de Aranjuez.pdf (music sheet)

Steve Reich: Six pianos

Sergei Prokofiev: Peter and the Wolf

Sergei Prokofiev: Allegro from Symphony No. 1, Classical

Sunday, August 30, 2015

Important definitions for IGCSE

Hi IGCSE Music Students of SLK,

Here I will share with you the very important definitions from music history as you have requested:) I hope it will help you for the IGCSE preparation.

Let's start with the genres!

  • Aria: is a song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment
  • Cantata: is a vocal composition with an instrumental accompaniment, often involving a choir
  • Chamber music: chamber music is a form of classical music that is composed for a small group of instruments. Chamber music intended for performance in a private room or small auditorium (traditionally palace chamber) and usually having one performer for each part
  • Concert overture: The concert overture based on the style of overtures to romantic operas and it became established in the 19th century as an independent one-movement work, which took either the classical sonata form or the free form of a symphonic poem. Examples of such works include Felix Mendelssohn's Hebrides overture or the Midsummer Night's Dream overture
  • Concerto after baroque: is a musical composition usually composed in three parts or movements in which one solo instrument (e.g. piano, violin, cello or flute) is accompanied by an orchestra or concert band
  • Concerto grosso: is a musical composition of baroque in which the musical material is passed between a small group of soloist and full orchestra. In baroque era it was very popular then its popularity declined after the baroque period. The genre was not revived until the 20th century
  • Concerto in baroque: is a piece for instrumental soloist, string orchestra and basso continuo
  • Divertimento: is an instrumental composition in several movements with light and diverting character. It is similar to a serenade
  • Ensembles: are compositions for two or more singers
  • Fugue: a polyphonic composition based on one theme
  • Italian operas: Italian opera was born in Italy around the year 1600 and Italian opera has continued to play a dominant role in the history of the form until the present day. Many famous operas in Italian were written by foreign composers, including Handel, Gluck and Mozart. Works by native Italian composers of the 19th and early 20th centuries such as Rossini, Bellini, Donizetti, Verdi and Puccini are amongst the most famous operas ever written and today are performed in opera houses across the world
  • Librettist: the person who writes the libretto
  • Libretto: the text of the opera
  • March: a musical composition that is usually in duple or quadruple time with a strongly accentuated beat and that is designed or suitable to accompany marching OR march is a piece of music with strong regular rhythm which in origin was expressively written for marching to and most frequently performed by a military band
  • Minuet: is a musical style that accompanies a dance, often with a longer musical form called the minuet and trio
  • Music drama: Music drama is an opera having more or less continuous musical and dramatic activity without arias, recitatives or ensembles. This term was used first by Richard Wagner in which the musical elements are of equal importance and strongly interfused
  • Opera: a drama in which some or all of the lines are sung with an orchestral accompaniment
  • Oratorio: is a large-scale composition with religious theme for chorus, vocal soloists and orchestra
  • Overture or Prelude: the orchestral introduction to an opera
  • Program symphony: A multi-movement composition with extra-musical content that directs the attention of the listener to a literary or pictorial association. Hector Berlioz provides a story line (program) for the 'Symphonie Fantastique' to describe the life of the young artist as depicted in the composition. Program music was especially popular in the 19th century
  • Recitative: is a vocal line that imitates speech, accompanied by basso continuo (cello or bassoon in the baroque era)
  • Rondo: a round or canon is a piece of music in which two or more performers or groups start one after the other. As each performer reaches the end of the music, they start again - the music going round and round - hence the name
  • Short, expressive piano pieces: A short, relatively brief piano piece often improvisational and intimate in character. The composers such as Robert Schumann and Frederic Chopin wrote these works for the burgeois salons of Europe
  • Sonata: In the baroque period a sonata was for one or more instruments almost always accompanied by basso continuo. After baroque period sonatas are performed by a solo instrument, most often a keyboard instrument or by a solo instrument accompanied by a keyboard instrument
  • String Quartet: is a musical ensemble of four string players (two violin players, a viola player and a cellist)
  • Suite: a set of musical pieces considered as one composition
  • Symphonic poem: A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral or concert band music, usually in a single continuous section ( a movement) that illustrates or evokes the content of a poem, short story, novel, painting, landscape or other (non-musical) source. Both the term symphonic poem and the form itself were invented by the Hungarian composer Liszt Ferenc (Franz Liszt) who in works such as 'Les Preludes' used thematic transformation to parallel the poetic emotions. In its aesthetic objectives the symphonic poem is in some ways related to an opera. Whilst it does not use a sung text, it seeks, like opera a union of music and drama
  • Symphony: is a long composition for orchestra, usually with three to four movements
  • Waltz: is a dance music in triple meter, often written in time signature 3/4

Let's continue with the musical forms (structures)!

  • Baroque Suite: is a collection of baroque dances often preceded by a prelude. They same key is used on all pieces but they are organized with contrasting tempo and time signatures. Other names for the suite are partita and sonata. The suite has the following dances: 1. Allemande  2. Courante  3. Sarabande  4. Air  5. Menuet  6. Gigue. All dances are in binary form
  • Binary form:  this form uses two sections (AB), each often repeated (AABB). In the Classical period 'simple binary' form was often used for dances and carried with it the convention that the two sections should be in different musical keys but same rhythm, duration and tone. The alternation of two tunes gives enough variety to permit a dance to be extended for as long as desired
  • Compound ternary form: A piece in compound ternary form is a ternary piece in which at least one of its part can be subdivided into two or more part. For examples, please visit the next website https://www.teoria.com/en/tutorials/forms/
  • Ternary form: this form has three parts. In Western classical music a simple ternary form has a third section that is a recapitulation of the first (ABA). Often, the first section is repeated (AABA). This approach was very popular in the 18th century and was called da capo ('repeat from the top') form
  • Rondo form: In rondo form, section A is repeated several times with new sections presented between each repetition. The basic form is the next: A-B-A-C-A. Section A can be repeated with variations. Composers generally try to achieve some contrast between each section and the use of different keys for different sections is very common
  • Sonata form: The sonata form is probably one of the most common forms in classical and romantic music. This form is commonly used in the first movement of sonatas, string quartets, symphonies and even concerts. It has three main sections: I. Exposition; II. Development; III. Recapitulation. For more information, check the next website: https://www.teoria.com/en/tutorials/forms/

Basic Italian tempo markings (bpm = beats per minute)

  • Larghissimo – very, very slow (19 bpm and under)
  • Grave – very slow (20–40 bpm)
  • Lento – slowly (40–45 bpm)
  • Largo – broadly (45–50 bpm)
  • Larghetto – rather broadly (50–55 bpm)
  • Adagio – slow and stately (55–65 bpm)
  • Adagietto – rather slow (65–69 bpm)
  • Andantino – slightly slower than andante (although in some cases it can be taken to mean slightly faster than andante) (78–83 bpm)
  • Andante – at a walking pace (84–90 bpm)
  • Andante moderato – between andante and moderato (thus the name andante moderato) (90–100 bpm)
  • Marcia moderato – moderately, in the manner of a march (83–85 bpm)
  • Moderato – moderately (100–112 bpm)
  • Allegro Moderato - moderately fast (112-116 bpm)
  • Allegretto – close to but not quite allegro (116–120 bpm)
  • Allegro – fast, quickly, and bright (120–130 bpm) (molto allegro is slightly faster than allegro, but always in its range)
  • Vivace – lively and fast (132–140 bpm)
  • Vivacissimo – very fast and lively (140–150 bpm)
  • Allegrissimo (or Allegro Vivace) – very fast (168–177 bpm)
  • Presto – extremely fast (180–200 bpm)
  • Prestissimo – even faster than Presto (200 bpm and over)

Terms for tempo change
  • A piacere - the performer may use his or her own discretion with regard to tempo and rhythm (literally 'at pleasure')
  • A tempo - resume previous tempo
  • Accelerando or Stringendo – gradually accelerating (speeding up)
  • Allargando - decreasing tempo, usually near the end of a piece
  • Doppio più lento – half speed
  • Doppio più mosso – double speed
  • L'istesso, L'istesso tempo or Lo stesso tempo - at the same speed; this Italian term is used when actual speed of the music has not changed, despite apparent signals to the contrary such as changes in time signature or note length (e.g. half notes in 4/4 could change to whole notes in 2/2 and they would all have the same duration)
  • Lentando – gradually slowing and softer
  • Meno mosso - less movement or slower
  • Mosso - more lively, quicker, much like pin moss but not as extreme
  • Più mosso - more movement, faster
  • Precipitando - hurrying, going faster, going forward
  • Ritardando or Rallentando – gradually slowing down
  • Ritenuto - slightly slowing down but immediately/sudden decrease in tempo
  • Rubato - free adjustment of tempo for expressive purposes
  • Stretto - in faster tempo, often near the conclusion of a section
  • Tardo - slow, common marking in Italian and German works of the 16th-17th century but later it was replaced by other terms
  • Tempo comodo - at a comfortable (normal) speed
  • Tempo giusto - at a consistent speed/at the 'right' speed/in strict tempo
  • Tempo primo - resume the original (first) tempo
  • Tempo semplice - simple, regular speed (plainly)

Other common Italian terms
  • Alla marcia - in the manner of march
  • All' ongarese - in Hungarian style
  • Alla (danza) tedesca - in the style of the Landler and similar dances in rather quick triple meter
  • Alla turca - in the Turkish style (in imitation of Turkish military music), which became popular in Europe in the late 18th century
  • Alla zingarese - in the style of Gypsy music
  • Assai - very much, as in allegro assai, quite fast
  • Con - with
  • Con bravura - with skill
  • Con brio - with vigor and spirit
  • Con dolcezza - with softness; delicately
  • Con fuoco - with fire
  • Con moto - with motion
  • Deciso - playing positively, decidedly, decisively, surely
  • Fugato - in fugal style, usually part of a non-fugal composition; such passages often occur in the development sections of symphonies, sonatas, and quartets
  • In modo - in the manner of, in the style of e.g. in modo di marcia funebre 'in the manner of a funeral march'
  • Meno - less, as in meno mosso 'less quickly'
  • Misterioso - mysterious
  • Molto - much, very, as in molt allegro 'very quickly' or molt adagio 'very slowly'
  • Non troppo - not too much, as in allegro non troppo or allegro ma non troppo, as in 'fast but not too much'
  • Non tanto - not so much
  • Più - not so much
  • Piuttosto - rather, as in piuttosto allegro 'rather quick'
  • Poco - slighlty, little as in poco adagio 'play a little slow'
  • Poco a poco - little by little
  • Polacca - generic name for Polish dances, usually the polonaise, as in tempo di polacca
  • Primo - principal or early, as in tempo primo 'the same tempo as at the beginning'
  • Senza - without as in senza interruzione 'without interruption or pause'
  • Sostenuto - sustained
  • Subito - suddenly

Mood markings with tempo connotation
  • Agitato - agitated, with implied quickness
  • Appassionato - to play passionately
  • Animato - animatedly, lively
  • Brillante - sparkling, glittering, as in Allegro brillante, Rondo brillante, or Variations brillantes; became fashionable in titles for virtuoso pieces
  • Cantabile - in singing style
  • Dolce - sweetly
  • Dolcissimo - very sweetly and delicately
  • Energico - energetic, strong, forceful
  • Espressivo - expressively
  • Furioso - to play in an angry or furious manner
  • Giocoso - merrily, funny
  • Gioioso - joyfully
  • Grandioso - magnificently, grandly
  • Grazioso - gracefully
  • Lacrimoso - tearfully, sadly
  • Leggiero - to play lightly or with light touch
  • Leggiadro - lightly and gracefully
  • Maestoso - majestic or stately (slow march-like movement)
  • Malinconico - melancholic
  • Marcato - marked with emphasis
  • Marziale - in a march style, usually in simple, strongly marked rhythm and regular phrases
  • Mesto - sad, mournful
  • Misterioso - mystical, in a shady manner
  • Patetico - with great emotion
  • Pesante - heavily
  • Pomposo - dignified, in grand style
  • Scherzando - playfully
  • Smorzando - dying away, decreasing to nothing in both speed and dynamic
  • Spiccato - slow sautille (a bowing technique used for fast notes on string instruments. Although the term means 'bounce', it is the wood of the bow rather than the hair that bounces - the hair usually remains in contact with the string. It can be thought of as less bouncy that spiccato), with a bouncy manner

Definitions of compositional devices and playing techniques

A compositional device is a technique for achieving a particular artistic effect.

  • Alberti bass: ALberti bass is a kind of broken chord or arpeggiated accompaniment where the notes of the chord are presented in the order lowest, highest, middle, highest. This pattern is then repeated
  • Arco: means to return to bowing after pizzicato or col legno. Pizzicato means you pluck the strings with your fingers instead of using the bow. Col legno using the wooden backside of the bow instead of the hairs
  • Arpeggio: In Italian the word 'arpeggiare' means 'to play on a harp'. An arpeggio (we also call it 'broken chord' in English) is a musical technique where notes in a chord are played or sung in sequence, one after the other rather than ringing out simultaneously. A very good example for arpeggios is the I. movement of Beethoven's Moonlight Sonata, in which the right hand plays the arpeggios.
  • Atonality: music that lacks a tonal centre or key
  • Bariolage: The name for the bowing style when there is a repeated note - often as an open string - in between changing notes.
  • Cadences: See the online lesson at http://www.musictheory.net/lessons/55 about the different kind of cadences we've learnt in music class
  • Chromaticism: Chromatic tones in Western art music are the notes in a composition that are outside the seven-note diatonic scales and modes. On the piano keyboard the black keys represent the 5 chromatic tones that do not belong to the diatonic scale of C major. Black and white keys together add up to the chromatic scale of 12 tones per octave
  • Coda: In Italian it means 'tail'. In music is a term used to designate a passage that brings a piece or a movement to an end. Technically, it is an expanded cadence. It maybe only a few bars or an entire section
  • Codetta: In Italian it means 'little tail'. In music it is a short or less important coda, often at the end of a section of a movement
  • Contrary motion: Two parts move in opposite directions, example as one part ascends the other part descends. See the attached picture below:

  • Counter-melody: a second melody is accompanying a principal one
  • Counterpoint: In music, counterpoint is the relationship between voices that are inter independent harmonically (polyphony) yet independent in rhythm and contour (in music, the pitch contour of a sound is a function or curve that tracks the perceived pitch of the sound over time). Look at the picture below:

  • Extract from Fugue no. 17 in A-flat major, BWV 862 by J.S. Bach

  • Double stopping: In music a double stop refers to the technique of playing two notes simultaneously on a bowed stringed instrument such as a violin, a viola, a cello, or a double bass. In performing a double stop, two separate strings are bowed or plucked simultaneously. For an example, look at the picture below:

    • Drone: A drone is a bass note held (or repeated) throughout a passage of music
    • Folklorism: is a compositional technique in which the composer involves traditional folklore instruments (gamelan, sitar, cimbalom etc.), folk songs, folk dances and stories into his composition
    • Glissando: Glissando is when you slide a finger on a string or piano from one note to another. A Portamento is when you slide from a note or to a note but do not connect the two notes
    • Ground bass: a short melody in the bass that is constantly repeated. We also call it 'basso obstinate'
    • Imitation: Imitation is where a melody in one part is repeated a few notes later in a different part, overlapping the melody in the first part which continues. For example: a flute may imitate a tune just played by the oboe or the strings might imitate a tune just sung by the choir. The melody may vary through transposition, inversion or otherwise but retain its original character
    • Melisma: a group of notes sung to a single syllable
    • Interval: The 'distance' between 2 notes is called an interval. The 'size' of any interval is expressed numerically, e.g. C to G is a 5th, because if we proceed up the scale of C to G is a 5th note in it is G. The somewhat hollow-sounding 4th, 5th, and octave of the scale are all called perfect. They possess what we may perhaps call a 'purity' distinguishing them from other intervals. The other intervals, in the ascending major scale are all called major (major 2nd, major 3rd, major 6th, major 7th). If any major interval be chromatically reduced by a semitone it becomes minor; if any perfect or minor interval be so reduced it becomes diminished; if any perfect or major interval be increased by a semitone it becomes augmented. See the attached picture below:

    • Still intervals. Let's learn a few specific intervals

      • major second is made up of two half steps. C to D is a major second since it is a generic second on the staff and two half steps on the keyboard. E to F# would be another example of a major second.
      • major third is made up of four half steps. C to E is a major third. E to G# is also a major third.
      • perfect fourth is made up of five half steps. C to F is a perfect fourth. F to Bb is also a perfect fourth.
      • perfect fifth is made up of seven half steps. C to G is a perfect fifth. B to F# is also a perfect fifth.
      • major sixth is made up of nine half steps. C to A is a major sixth. Eb to C is also a major sixth.
      • major seventh is made up of eleven half steps. C to B is a major seventh. D to C# is also a major seventh.
      • Finally, a perfect eighth (or perfect octave) is made up of twelve half steps. C to C is a perfect eighth.
      • The terms "major" and "perfect" refer to the interval's quality. Only seconds, thirds, sixth, and seventh can have a major quality. Firsts, fourths, fifths, and eighths use "perfect" instead.

      Next, let's discuss minor intervals

      • A minor interval has one less half step than a major interval. For example: since C to E is a major third (4 half steps), C to Eb is a minor third (3 half steps). E to G is also a minor third (since E to G# is a major third). Since minor intervals transform from major intervals; only seconds, thirds, sixths, and sevenths can be "minor".
      • An augmented interval has one more half step than a perfect interval. Since C to F is a perfect fourth (5 half steps), C to F# would be an augmented fourth (six half steps). F to B is also an augmented fourth (since F to Bb is a perfect fourth).
      • Major intervals can be augmented by adding a half step. For example, since C to A is a major sixth (9 half steps), C to A# is an augmented sixth (10 half steps). Db to B is also an augmented 6th (since Db to Bb is a major sixth).
      • diminished interval has one less half step than a perfect interval. Since C to G is a perfect fifth (7 half steps), C to Gb would be a diminished fifth (6 half steps). B to F is also a diminished fifth (since B to F# is a perfect fifth).
      • Minor intervals can also be diminished by subtracting a half step. Recall C to B is a major seventh (11 half steps) and C to Bb is a minor seventh (10 half steps). C to Bbb is a diminished seventh (9half steps).

    • Inversion: Literally, the turning upside down of a chord, interval, counterpoint, theme or pedal point. A chord is said to be inverted when not in its 'root position'
    • Ostinato: in music a short melodic phrase repeated throughout a composition sometimes slightly varied or transposed to a different pitch. A rhythmic obstinate is a short, constantly repeated rhythmic pattern
    • Parallel harmony:  In music parallel harmony (or harmonic parallelism or harmonic planing or parallel voice leading) is the parallel movement of two or more lines. Look at the picture below:

    • Pedal: A pedal as a musical term, is a single note that held on or repeated in the bass
    • Polyrhythm: a rhythm that makes use of two or more different rhythms simultaneously
    • Ritornello: Ritornello - in Italian means 'little return' - a recurrent musical section that alternates with different episodes of contrasting material. The repetition can be exact or varied to a greater or less extent. In the concerto gross the full orchestra (tutti) has the ritornello while the solo group has the contrasting episodes
    • Sequence: In music a sequence is the restatement of a motif or longer melodic or harmonic passage at a higher or lower pitch in the same voice. It is one of the most common and simple methods of elaborating a melody in Classical and Romantic period
    • Serial music: a compositional technique in which a fixed series of notes, especially the twelve notes of the chromatic scale, are used to generate the harmonic and melodic basis of a piece and are subject to change only specific ways
    • Syncopation: musical rhythm in which stress is given to the weak beats instead of the strong beats (it creates off-beat in the song)

    Let's revise the textures now

    • HeterophonicHeterophonic texture is rarely encountered in western music. It consists of a single melody, performed by two or more musicians, with slight or not-so-slight variations from performer to performer. These variations usually result from ornamentation being added spontaneously by the performers. Heterophony is mostly found in the music of nonwestern cultures such as Native American, Middle Eastern and South African.
    • HomophonicHomophonic (or homophony) is the texture we encounter most often. It consists of a single, dominating melody that is accompanied by chords. Sometimes the chords move at the same rhythm as the melody; other times the chords are made up of voices that move in counterpoint to each other. The important aspect is that the chords are subservient to the melody.
    • MonophonicLiterally meaning "one sound," monophonic texture (noun: monophony) describes music consisting of a single melodic line. Whether it is sung/played by one person or many, as long as the same notes and rhythms are being performed, monophonic texture results.
    • PolyphonicPolyphonic texture ("many sounds;" noun: polyphony) describes a musical texture in which two or more melodic lines of relatively equal importance are performed simultaneously. This is a fairly complex style which served as a proving ground for composers from around 1500-1800. It is important to note that a group of singers are required in polyphonic music, but polyphony can be performed on some instruments-such as the piano, organ, and guitar-by a single musician.

    Key signatures
    (click on the picture below)

      Criterias for general listening skills

      Standard staff notation including dynamic, tempo and expression markings, simple ornaments and articulation signs, treble, bass and alto clefs, key signatures up to 4 sharps and 4 flats in major and minor keys, time signatures, major, minor and perfect intervals.

      Melody and rhythm
      Major, minor, chromatic, whole-tone and pentatonic scales. Blue notes. Melodic movement (ascending or descending by step or leap). Phrasing. Call and response. Duple, triple or irregular metre. Syncopation, swing, polyrhythm.

      Primary chords: I, IV, and V(7); secondary chords: II and VI. Perfect, imperfect and interrupted cadences. Modulations to related keys (sub-dominant, dominant, relative minor, relative major).

      Ensembles and instruments/voices
      Western ensembles and instruments: orchestras, jazz bands, choirs and chamber music ensembles. The main instruments and voices used in the above ensembles. Keyboard instruments: piano, harpsichord, organ. World ensembles and instruments: Indonesian: gamelan; African and Arab: raba–bkora, xylophone, ’u–d; Indian: bansurisitarsa–rangı–tabla–; Chinese: ch’indizierh-hu. Japanese: shakuhachikotosho–; Latin American: bandoneon, pan-pipes, charangos, guitars.

      Instrumental and/or vocal effects
      Arco, pizzicato, glissando, tremolo, double stopping, strumming, pitch bending, mute, roll, melisma.

      Binary, ternary, rondo, theme and variations, ground bass.

      Compositional devices
      Repetition, imitation, sequence, canon, ostinato, drone, Alberti bass, pedal (tonic and dominant), contrary motion.

      Melody and accompaniment, homophonic, polyphonic, monophonic, heterophonic, parallel motion.

      Baroque, Classical, Romantic, Twentieth Century (including impressionism, neo-classicism, jazz, minimalism).

      Opera, oratorio (including recitative, aria and chorus), musical, symphony, concerto, string quartet, sonata, march, waltz, minuet and trio.

      Background information of the piece
      What is the meaning or the story of your composition?